flightgear f 14 manual

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flightgear f 14 manual

The Tomcat was developed for the United States Navy's Naval Fighter Experimental (VFX) program following the collapse of the F-111B project. The F-14 was the first of the American teen-series fighters, which were designed incorporating the experience of air combat against MiG fighters during the Vietnam War.The F-14 served as the U.S. Navy's primary maritime air superiority fighter, fleet defense interceptor and tactical reconnaissance platform. In the 1990s, it added the Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night ( LANTIRN ) pod system and began performing precision ground-attack missions. As of early 2015, the F-14 is in service with only the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, having been exported to Iran in 1976, when the U.S. had amicable diplomatic relations with Iran.When performing a carrier landing there will be flight director bars shown to reference the vertical deviation from the glideslope and deviation from the center line. Carrier landings require the right TACAN channel to be selected (for the carrier) and the ARA-63 to be turned on. When the primary nav is tuned to a civilian ILS frequency this will also be shown on the display although the ARA-63 specific carrier lights will not illuminateThe AP CPLR system is not available. These lights are illuminated whenever the gear is down.The light combinations are as follows:When a light illuminates on the caution panel the MASTER CAUTION on the glareshield will also illuminate until pushed. Once pushed the caution panel warning will remain and the MASTER CAUTION light will be extinguished.Use the hydraulic gauge to determine which system isn't functioning. Normally the Bidirectional transfer pump will keep provide pressure to the other hydraulic system from the good hydraulic system; unless the HYD TRANSFER switch on the right console is set to SHUTOFF' This is also shown when using external power Cabin pressure will be maintained according to the correct schedule.


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Using Cabin press dump will de-pressurise the cabin. Air source needs to be selected to allow cabin pressure and windshield air to function.If successful (and it always will be) the green GO will illuminate. All other tests will result in a NO GO warningFour positions: Off, Gun, SW, SP-PH.Flaps, Auxiliary Flaps and Slats.The maneuvering flaps are disabled when wings are swept outside of the permissible region for flap or slat deployment.The auxiliary flaps are next to the fuselage and the main flaps are behind and below the spoilers.The Wing Sweep can be controlled via the keyboard or by using the Sweep gauge in the cockpit. Use the mousewheel over the sweep angle indication to adjust the required angle of sweep. The legends to the right of the wing sweep gauge can be clicked to any of the possible modes.The wings cannot be swept further forwards than the CADC automatic value (to protect the airframe).Interlocks operate to prevent flap deployment with unsuitable wing sweep. It is usual to start the right engine first to ensure that the flight hydraulics system is pressurized first.These are the yellow and black striped items on the glareshield picture.When both engines are stopped there will be no hydraulic and electrical power and the cockpit will become dark.It is usual operating procedure on an F-14B to not use afterburners on take off unless heavily loaded as in the event of engine failure after rotation the resulting yaw moment is likely to result in an uncontrolled departure. By 200 knots the flaps should be fully retracted. Note that as the flaps are retracted the longitudinal balance of the aircraft changes and it will tend to pitch down slightly which should be corrected by using the pitch trim. The flight system powers the primary flight controls and surfaces, and the combined powers everything else.There are two backup systems for the hydraulics in case of an engine (primary) pump malfunction.


The first of these is a Bi-Directional transfer pump that can powere one system from the other system. The second method is an electrically powered pump. The electrically powered pump has its own small reservoir - so once powered on the electrically powered pump should not be powered off as the hydraulic fuel expands and is lost - so there may not be enough fluid remaining in the reservoir to allow the pump to start.Other Modes need this main mode activated before being selected. Switching off Attitude Mode disables all other modes. When in Attitude Mode, the autopilot disengages whenever a certain pressure is put on the stick, and it re-engages when the stick is back in the centre position. Attitude Hold Mode will hold pitch attitudes up to plus or minus 30 degrees, and bank angles up to plus or minus 60 degrees. The autopilot will then maintain your altitude. After manoeuvring the aircraft into the desired reference heading, release the control stick at a bank angle of less than 5 degrees. The autopilot will then hold the aircraft on the selected heading. APC is also disengaged by setting the throttles to MIL, (98 percent rpm) or idle, (68 percent rpm) or raising the landing gear handle or when weight on the wheels. For the APC to perform satisfactorily, smooth attitude control is essential. Large, abrupt attitude changes result in excessive power changes. APC use is not recommended in gusty conditions.The APC will adjust power to correct back to on-speed condition throughout the remainder of the turn. Upon rollout on glideslope, the pilot must override the tendency for the nose to pitch up by maintaining slight forward stick. The aircraft will indicate 1 to 2 units fast, which will slow to on-speed within 5 seconds. Timely use of DLC can also be used to more rapidly correct from a fast or slow condition. If a high, in-close situation develops, the recommended procedure is to stop the meatball motion and not try to recenter it.


A low, in-close condition is difficult to correct with APC and often results in an over-the-top bolter. It may be necessary to disengage or manually override APC in order to safely recover from a low in-close situation. Throughout the approach, the pilot should keep his hand on the throttles in the event APC disengages inadvertently. A smooth throttle transition from AUTO to BOOST mode can be achieved by depressing the CAGE button on the outboard throttle grip.The spoilers can also act as brakes to provide extra retardation upon touchdown. After touch down and the throttles pulled to idle, then the spoilers are fully deployed.There is an option on the Fuel and Stores dialog in the Tomcat Controls Menu to allow the gun to be reloaded. A multikey shortcut is also available: A H a. Having the HUD in this mode is not mandatory however when the HUD is in the right mode the guidance symbology will assist with target identification and aiming. A pipper, the G symbol with a number showing approximately the remaining rounds x 100 and a closure rate scale are displayed in the HUD. The closure rate scale is active only if a target has been locked ( y ) by the radar with TWS AUTO mode (diamond on the HUD). If you have 4 sidewinders, then after shooting the first 2 you need to toggle the pylons 1 and 8 into the up position. Multiplayers, AI aircraft, and AI tankers can be locked (radar lock with y ). The missile will explode at the smaller distance possible. However if this distance is above 70 meters, it will continue its trajectory without guidance. NB: only the development branch of the F-14 has this capabilities. In all other versions the bombs are displayed, but cannot be triggered.However there is currently neither a CCIP or a CCRP display in the HUD. Find out what is working for you. The HSD MODE switch is also available, it selects NAV or TID or ECM mode. This can also be achieved by cycling through these 3 modes with the h key.

Shows the aircraft attitude in roll and pitch, with an artifitial horizon and magnetic heading. HSD shows either:Modes TR and TR-G set COMM1. Mode DF sets NAV1, that is Direction Finder displayed with the single needle in both BDHIs (Bearing, Distance, Heading Indicator). Storing frequencies (up to 20 channels) a - PRESET select the desired channel, b - READ tune the desired frequency, c - LOAD stores the frequency in the previously selected channel. ADF is not enabled on this radio. After weapon release it becomes the RIO's job to perform laser guidance and monitor the missile progress. Voice comms using FGCOM or another method is recommended as things happen too quickly for text chat to be much use (and besides the pilot will usually be busy with the controls). Air-to-air refueling For pilots Please view the media description page for details about the license of specific media files. See Terms of use for details. The content of this guide is to a large extent specific to the mighty Grumman F-14 Tomcat in FlightGear.Real naval pilots have hundreds of landings on airports and hundreds of hours of training on the aircraft type plus significant simulator training before they are allowed to make an attempt on the real thing.Consider training with an easier plane like the Grumman A 6E or the Bourrasque.You first retract the speed brake after landing on the carrier in the Tomcat (they retract automatically if afterburner is used). It is assumed that the reader is acquainted to the FlightGear F-14 Tomcat wiki page.The aircraft's nose can point to horizon and still the AoA units can be significant. See e.g. angle of attack on Wikipedia. Similar information is in FlightGear F-14 Tomcat AoA Indexer. Due to the lag in the system you have to find out yourself, whether APC helps you or not (and it might take many attempts to find out, because only when you are doing stuff consistently right, then you will be able to know the difference). NATOPS chapter 8.5.

3 describes the APC procedure. See also chapter 8.5.4 in NATOPS and a real pilot's description of the use of DLC. Especially figure 8-3 is core (remark that the top of the figure states a maximum landing gross weight of 54000 pounds).You hold, penetrate, and fly up the TACAN final bearing like CASE III until below the overcast. Then you enter for a carrier break like CASE I. The switch is on the right hand console at the top right of MASTER LIGHTS. Figure 2-83 in NATOPS has the conversion chart between indicated AoA and indicated air speed for different weights (use the table without DLC). E.g. 15 units with a gross weight of 50 000 pounds corresponds to 123 kt.The SAS panel is just behind the throttle. First add a bit of power before bank to counter immediate drop of lift at bank. Because of the rapid engine response and high throttle sensitivity, the pilot must avoid overcontrolling power. If this is the case, average out meatball movements to maintain a smooth and safe rate of descent. NATOPs describes field carrier landing practice in chapter 7.11 around page 377 in the pdf file. Once you get better, then you can add load. Maintaining on-speed is difficult. Increase throttle proactively as you add flaps, or you will pancake. Similarly: just before you level out decrease the throttle a bit, as you will get more lift. Fly the plane in a constant vector of descent into the flight deck. The carriage is constructed such that it can absorb the shock. Therefore, don't approach the aircraft carrier directly from behind, but come in to the right of the ship and constantly correct for the deviation between the ship moving forward and the angled deck. If your AoA on touchdown is to low (did you flare?), then the tail hook will slide over the cable. If your AoA was too high (did you loose confidence and pitched up in the last moment?), then the hook might bounce off the flight deck because it is absorbing the shock before the main gear does.

Let the wires and the hook do the job and first use brakes, when the hook has been raised to control rolling to parking position. Increase the throttle. However, if you wanted to change the rate of descent, not only a power correction is needed, but you also have to nudge the nose up or down some to get a quicker response to the power change. In the real plane Direct Lift Control (DLC) would be used - but it is not available in the sim. Otherwise you will gain height and loose speed rapidly. The bank indicator in the HUD has a turn slip indication - if the triangle is torn apart, then you need to push the pedals in the direction of the lower part of the triangle. Do not wait for the reaction: make the adjustment and then return the throttle position. But if pitch is trimmed, why so. Because you might need to dampen the pitch changes due to thrust changes (and the thrust changes constantly). You might also want to give the YouTube channel Chasse Embarquee a try, to contrast US Navy operations with the ones used by the French Navy on their sole carrier Charles de Gaulle. Please view the media description page for details about the license of specific media files. The aerodynamics in the FDM are based on real wind tunnel data and cover the full range of flight operations, including stalling and realistic spinning. This F-14 simulator has a realistic F-14 Flat Spin that is unrecoverable as in the aircraft. The TF-30 model includes a configurable compressor stall, including MCB failure. The compressor stall is simulated based on engine pressures (PB) and the affect of angle of attack and sideslip on the inlet airflow to produce a representative compressor stall. As the compressor stall is based on inlet pressure it is still possible to stall the engine at higher speeds during high G manoeuvering.

However it is easy to miss this, and particularly on approach when coming in with surplus energy it is possible to keep this in check with rudder and stick and only when increasing power, especially into afterburer, when the yaw moment becomes uncontrollable and an airframe loss is the likely result. Monitoring the engine gauges during your scan will allow you to detect a compressor stall by the reduction in RPM. Recovery procedure is simply to move the throttle for the affected engine to idle and wait for recovery. This is my first flightgear model; although I've been working with flight simulators for many years professionally. Using JSBSim for none FDM modelling works well. I have modelled the high speed and flaps etc.There are 63 distinct detailed aerodynamic coefficients) Sweep interlocks are correctly modelled so when deploying flaps aux flaps can only be used below 22deg of sweep; otherwise up to 50degrees the main flaps can be deployed. At wing sweep of more than 55 degrees no flaps are available. This isn't realistic it's just useful. So the purists who want an F-14B HUD this can be turned off in the ground services dialog Not sure if this is right but it sounds less like a Cessna Wing sweep follows F14-AAD-1 so generally fully swept by M 0.9 So if you lose engines at low speed (insufficient airflow to keep the turbines spinning) then you will also lose electrics and hydraulics and thus flight controls Once the engine N2 reaches above 18 the hyrdaulics will have sufficient pressure to power the backup electrical generator and the cockpit should light up. Author contributions:Sweep interlocks are correctly modelled so when deployingThe JSBSim aerodynamics model uses all of the data in the.

AFWAL-TR-80-3141 report and is accurate for low speed cleanBecause of the more realistic model the aeroplane is harder to fly than thoseThe hydraulics and electrics require either engine systems or externalAn engine start can be performed by pulling the cut off values (yellowOnce the engine N2 reaches above 18 theAs all of the simulation models are in JSBSim (rather than Nasal) itThe brakes control binding for joysticks will function as either ground or airbrakes appropriately.Alexis BoryJanoFlight control shortcuts. Home Increase elevator trim. End Decrease elevator trim.Shift-F Raise flaps.Ctrl-b Toggle air brakes.Radar shortcuts. Shift-E Decrease Radar Range Display. Shift-R Increase Radar Range Display.Autopilot shortcuts. Ctrl-t Toggle AFCS Attitude Mode. Ctrl-a Enable AFCS Altitude Mode. Ctrl-h Enable AFCS Heading Mode. Landing helps shortcuts:Ctrl-d Toggle DLC, (Landing Direct Lift Control).Shift-D DLC decrease. Ctrl-s Toggle ground spoilers armed. Miscelaneous shortcuts:Ctrl-o Toggle oversweep (on ground only, otherwise sweep isHUD shortcuts:Weapons shortcuts. Ctrl-w Cycle through MasterArm modes.Ctrl-m Toggle AIM-9 selectionNote on RIO. Note on Ctrl-C. Hotspots and pick animation can be hilighted with Ctrl-c. CurrentlyWeapons operation. ATM only the gun and the AIM-9s are operational, others ordonances areGun. At startup, the ammunition store is filled with 675 round. It's notTo fire the M61A1 Vulcan. A multikey shortcut is also available (:AHa). Having the HUD in thisThe closureAUTO mode (diamond on the HUD).Sidewinders. Crudely modeled on AIM-9L available data.A multikey shortcut is also available (:AHa).When locked, the signal buzz volumeThe missile will explode at the smaller distance possible. HoweverThe main mode is Attitude Hold Mode, (Ctrl-t). Other Modes need thisSwitching off Attitude ModeWhen in Attitude Mode, the autopilotAttitude Hold.

Mode will hold pitch attitudes up to plus or minus 30 degrees, and bankIt shall be switched off forAutopilot Altitude Mode. Once in Attitude Mode, you can select Altitude Mode by hitting Ctrl-a,CAUTION - at high speeds, it is imperative to stabilize the aircraftAutopilot Heading Mode. Once in Attitude Mode, you can select Heading Mode by hitting Ctrl-h. After manoeuvering the aircraft to the desired reference heading,Heading. Autopilot need SAS channels to be engaged, (which is the default). SAS. Pitch and Roll channels may be disengaged by actuating switches locatedLanding Automatic Power Control, (APC) Operation. The APC is a closed loop system that automaticaly regulates basicAPC is also disengaged by settingWhen disengaged the AUTO THROT caution light, (on the left side of the. HUD) illuminates for 10 seconds. Landing Direct Lift Control, (DLC) Operation (Not JSBSim model). During landing approaches, the spoilers and horizontal stabilizers canGround Spoilers Operation. Ground spoilers (that is all spoilers used as air-brake ) provide aditionnalBefore landing, arm the groundCtrl-s again to disengage the ground spoilers. Request full-text Download citation Copy link Link copied Request full-text Download citation Copy link Link copied To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. Citations (57) Abstract The open source flight simulator FlightGear is developed from contributions by many talented people around the world. The main focus is a desire to 'do things right' and to minimize short cuts. FlightGear has become more configurable and flexible in recent years making for a huge improvement in the user's overall experience. This overview discusses the project, recent advances, some of the new opportunities and newer applications. Request full-text Citations (57) References (0). As some of the high-level requirements cannot be ensured at design time (e.g.

, time-related performance), we provide further testing support to validate the implementation with respect to these remaining requirements. Validation in avionics... In avionics, it is required to verify the behavior of the application in specific environmental conditions. Additionally, we have duplicated this case study in the context of the commercial Parrot AR.Drone system. 3. Design-driven Development of Dependable Applications: A Case Study in Avionics Article Full-text available Feb 2013 Quentin Enard Stephanie Gatti Julien Bruneau Charles Consel Making an application dependable demands that its functional and non-functional requirements be stringently fulfilled throughout its development process. In this context, a design-driven development approach has the key advantage of enabling requirements to be traced from their high-level design forms to the resulting executable artifact. However, because such approaches are mostly general purpose, they provide little design guidance, if any. This situation makes unpredictable the coherence and the conformance of an application with respect to its requirements. To address this situation, we propose an approach that leverages a design-driven development process dedicated to a specific paradigm. This approach guides the verification of the coherence and conformance of an application throughout its development. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach by applying it to a realistic case study in the avionics domain. View Show abstract. Le compilateur genere egalement du support de test ciblant un simulateur specifique a un domaine particulier (etape ). Listing 17: Extrait de l'entite simulee IRU En utilisant une bibliotheque de programmation Java qui fait l'interface avec FlightGear, les testeurs peuvent aisement implementer les versions simulees des entites utilisees par une application comme le gestionnaire de vol... Ce dernier est presente dans la Section 4.

3 et utilise comme exemple fil rouge tout au long de ce document. Au cours de son developpement, nous nous sommes notamment attaches a verifier la coherence de ses aspects fonctionnel et non-fonctionnels ainsi que la conformite avec les exigences de haut niveau.. Development of dependable applications: a design-driven approach Article May 2013 Quentin Enard In many domains such as avionics, medecine or home automation, software applications play an increasingly important rolethat can even be critical for their environment. In order to trust these applications, their development is contrained by dependability requirements. Indeed, it is necessary to demonstrate that these high-level requirements are taken into account throughout the development cycle and concrete solutions are implemented to achieve compliance. Such constraints make the development of dependable applications particularly complex and difficult. Easing this process calls for the research of new development approaches that integrate dependability concepts and guide the developers during each step of the development of trustworthy applications.This thesis proposes to leverage a design-driven approach to guide the development of dependable applications. This approachis materialized through a tool-suite called DiaSuite and offers dedicated support for each stage of the development. Inparticular, a design language is used to describe both functional and non-functional applications. This language is based on adedicated paradigm and integrates dependability concepts such as error handling. From the description of an application, development support is generated to guide the implementation and verification stages. Indeed, the generation of a dedicated programming framework allows to guide the implementation while the generation of a formal model allows to guide the static verification and simulation support eases the testing.

This approach is evaluated through case studies conducted in the domains of avionics and pervasive computing. Moreover, the tool suite provides testing support to customize the non-functional properties of the application during the simulation, allowing the verification of the application behavior in exceptional conditions... For example, in avionics, it is required to verify the behavior of the application in specific environmental conditions. These requirements have to be coherent with each other and must be preserved throughout the software development process. In this context, a design-driven development approach can play a critical role. However existing design-driven develop-ment approaches are often general purpose, providing little, if any, conceptual framework to guide the de-velopment. The resulting design scope thus becomes largely unpredictable, leading to inconsistencies. In this paper, we propose a design-driven method-ology that relies on a specific development paradigm. This development paradigm provides a conceptual framework that guides the stakeholders at each de-velopment stage. Based on this paradigm, a tool suite provides development support dedicated to each development stage. We demonstrate the benefits of this methodology with a realistic case study in the avionics domain. This simulator has specific builds for a diversity of operating systems such as Windows, Mac, OS, Solaris and various distributions of Linux such as Ubuntu and Debian.. Simulation Tools, Environments and Frameworks for UAV Systems Performance Analysis Conference Paper Full-text available Jun 2018 Aicha Driss Lobna Krichen Fourati Mohamed Lamia Chaari Fourati View. The participants used generic helicopter controls consisting of foot pedals, collective stick and cyclic stick. The control model simulated the vehicle's dynamics and calculated the position and orientation of the aircraft based on the current control inputs..

System Delay in Flight Simulators Impairs Performance and Increases Physiological Workload Conference Paper Full-text available Jun 2014 Nina Flad Frank M. Nieuwenhuizen Heinrich H Bulthoff Lewis L. Chuang Delays between user input and the system’s reaction in control tasks have been shown to have a detrimental effect on performance. This is often accompanied by increases in self-reported workload. In the current work, we sought to identify physiological measures that correlate with pilot workload in a conceptual aerial vehicle that suffered from varying time delays between control input and vehicle response. For this purpose, we measured the skin conductance and heart rate variability of 8 participants during flight maneuvers in a fixed-base simulator. Participants were instructed to land a vehicle while compensating for roll disturbances under different conditions of system delay. We found that control error and the self-reported workload increased with increasing time delay. Skin conductance and input behavior also reflect corresponding changes. Our results show that physiological measures are sufficiently robust for evaluating the adverse influence of system delays in a conceptual vehicle model. We use three domains to test the fault detection accuracy. We expect our proposed hybrid approach to be more accurate in fault detection than the original unsupervised SFDD approach.. A Hybrid Approach for Fault Detection in Autonomous Physical Agents Conference Paper Full-text available May 2014 Eliahu Khalastchi Meir Kalech Lior Rokach One of the challenges of fault detection in the domain of autonomous physical agents (or Robots) is the handling of unclassified data, meaning, most data sets are not recognized as normal or faulty. This fact makes it very challenging to use collected data as a training set such that learning algorithms would produce a successful fault detection model. Traditionally unsupervised algorithms try to address this challenge.

In this paper we present a hybrid approach that combines unsupervised and supervised methods. An unsupervised approach is utilized for classifying a training set, and then by a standard supervised algorithm we build a fault detection model that is much more accurate than the original unsupervised approach. We show promising results on simulated and real world domains. Indeed, longer-than-predicted function computing can make data erroneous, leading potentially to endanger people lives. Today, most approaches propose to ensure these Quality of Service requirements at platform level, e.g., through deterministic bandwidth, static time slots allocation and predefined scheduling. These constraints ensure applications can’t overpass allocated time slots; applications are then fed with requirements decoupled to their functionality. However, it shall be possible to certify timing requirements, dedicated to an application. Hence, guarantees at platform-level are not sufficient anymore. It should be possible to take into account these requirements from the stage of application design. Today, most of existing approaches in this domain, focus on supporting QoS at individual stages of the software development process, preventing requirements traceability. This thesis proposes a design-driven approach to supporting QoS throughout software development process, integrated in a tool-based methodology, namely DiaSuite. The QoS extension enriches the DiaSpec design language, with the capability to instantiate QoS requirements onto software components. A runtime execution support to monitoring these timing requirements, is then generated, directly from the specification. This thesis uniformly integrates timing concepts with error ones, around DiaSuite methodology, to propose a supervision layer that could lead to application reconfiguration in case of QoS contract violation.