enea ose manual

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enea ose manual

Just use the filters and pick the information you need in the results feed! The middleware must also support a wide range of HW platforms from simple SoCs, single boards, big chassis-based systems, rack mount servers, and Cloud-based platforms. Where large application-level data storage is required,Topologies get more complex when these systems move into cloud-based environments, and more diverse when they involve machine-to-machine (or M2M) solutions. Providers of distributed system software solutions face a number of challenges in building, debugging and maintaining a set of connected applications. Managing these systems requires powerful modeling and a variety of management interfaces to meet a diverse set of needs. The services provided by a distributed system often require a high level of availability. The middleware frameworks that make up Enea Element address many of these challenges. In this on-demand session, we discuss how NFV infrastructure software can ensure service flexibility, performance and cost-efficiency, while creating new business value based on capabilities such as service chaining. The emergence of lower-cost, high-volume white boxes along with standardized software APIs is a fundamental change that increases supplier choice and reduces cost for uCPE. Virtualization platforms with open, scalable and optimized software enable lower hardware costs since fewer cores and less memory are needed to deliver the necessary performance. Operational considerations such as zero-touch provisioning, platform and VNF management does also have an impact on cost and thus need to be optimized. Value-adding capabilities enabled by deep packet inspection (DPI) like service function chaining (SFC) and dynamic traffic management are also key ingredients in an optimized solution.


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This white paper written by ACG Research discusses the creation of agile networks, the advancement of NFV, optimized open source software innovations, and managing distributed networks efficiently and at scale. Optimized hardware cost at the customer premise through minimal hardware resource utilization, no need for OpenStack, and leveraging NETCONF to drive native Linux virtualization infrastructure. It is streamlined for high networking performance and minimal footprint, resulting in very high compute density. It provides a foundation for vCPE agility and innovation, reducing cost and complexity for computing at the network edge. In order to maximize profits, carriers and enterprises need to use the most cost effective solutions on the customer premise, and increasingly, they are using universal customer premise equipment (uCPE). The solution provides software configurable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) platform that is usually deployed at customer site. Service providers can run multiple Virtual Network Functions (VNF) such as routing, VPN and firewall on Supermicro's standard x86 architecture based servers depending on user requirements.In parallel, the evolution towards multi- and manycore devices challenges Linux in terms of its capability to provide a cost-efficient and real-time capable OS platform, and therefore we need to constantly evaluate our alternatives to enable real-time acceleration in Linux. This whitepaper describes the challenges and discusses three different options for how to enable real-time in Linux. It offers unrivaled performance characteristics and flexibility. The answer is Enea OSE Compatibility Platform (OCP). The Enea Linux distribution includes some of these tools and suggests that the tools are used in Eclipse. Enea Linux enables high throughput, low latency, networking, virtualization, and provides open source development tools exclusively.


Given this, the role of these virtualization technologies in the newly emerging embedded applications space is summarized.Linux was designed from the beginning for server and desktop applications, not for real-time applications. This means that achieving real-time properties on Linux is not trivial. This document is a guide for anyone attempting to implement a real-time application using Linux. This whitepaper discusses balancing cost and performance when selecting, integrating, and adapting mechanisms for multicore inter-process communication (IPC) in Linux-based communication systems. In order to maintain fulfilment of requirements on high speed network communication, efficient virtualization is required, affecting the virtual machine host as well as its guests. The paper compares the host and guest throughput performance, using stateof-the-art benchmarks and measurement methods. This paper will take a look at running drivers in user space, trying to answer the questions in what degree the driver can run in user space and what can be gained from this? How do you achieve “enough”After that, a few simple packet processing use cases are described, aiming to illuminate the pain points of a strict AMP multiprocessing approach.Purpose built for telecom applications, OSEck brings rich functionality with true real-time determinism. It also features high performance networking, advanced packet processing capabilities, and a powerful Eclipse based. IDE debug environment targeted for the most demanding telecom applications. OSEck is HW agnostic. It supports multiple HW architectures and is easily ported to any platform. The support from a trusted partner with a mature embedded Linux platform reduces time-to-market and mitigates business risks. Enea offers several Linux related services, ranging from board development, customizations, and training, to development, support and maintenance.


It is a freeware with reduced-functionality compared to the full 32-bit mode version of Polyhedra.It is a freeware with reduced-functionality compared to the full 32-bit mode version of Polyhedra.It is a freeware with reduced-functionality compared to the full 32-bit mode version of Polyhedra.It is a freeware with reduced-functionality compared to the full 32-bit mode version of Polyhedra.It is a freeware with reduced-functionality compared to the full 32-bit mode version of Polyhedra.Talk to us about customization and packaging. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Enea OSE Systems AB. The software described in this document is furnished under a licence agreement or a non-disclosure agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance with terms of agreement. Disclaimer Enea OSE Systems AB makes no representations or warranties with respect to the contents hereof and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Further, Enea OSE Systems AB reserves the right to revise this publication and to make changes from time to time in the contents hereof without obligation to Enea OSE Systems AB to notify any person of such revision or changes. Trademarks OSE is a registered trademark of Enea OSE Systems AB. The purpose of this manual is to provide all the necessary information for using the OSE system calls. The operating system is described in full in the User s Guide. 1.2 Who Should Read this Manual This manual is primarily intended for application developers. It is recommended that the Real Time User s Guide be studied before reading this Reference Manual. 1.3 About this Manual This manual provides a guide to all available system calls.


It includes a system call summary with the system calls presented according to three different principles: alphabetical order, functional groups and availability at the various implementation levels. It also includes a section giving a detailed explanation of every system call, with examples, and a section discussing possible errors together with a description of all error messages. Allocates a buffer of requested size. Assigns a process as link handler to the system. Stores a signal buffer owned by the caller in the control block of the specified process or block. A call from OSE to tell the MMU software that a new block has been created. A call from the MMU to tell OSE that the specified block resides in the indicated memory segment. Removes a previously set breakpoint. Creates a block and returns the block ID. Creates an error handler for the specified process or block. The MMU creates a new pool and attaches it to the specified block. Creates a process as a part of the specified block and returns the process ID. Creates and initializes a semaphore. Returns the process-id of the calling process. Puts a process to sleep for a specified number of milliseconds. Removes a signal that has previously been attached to a process or block by the caller. Reports an error to the OSE kernel or to the error handler if such exists. Reports an error to the OSE kernel or to the error handler if such exists, with an extra user defined parameter. Removes all signals sent by any of a set of processes specified from the signal queue of a process. Returns a signal buffer to the pool associated with the block. Returns the block ID that the specified process is a part of. Lists all the blocks that are available to the specified user number. Returns an identification string of the operating system where the specified process is executing. Reads the contents of the named environment variable. Reads a 32 bit pointer from a named environment variable for the specified process or block.

Reads the current value of a fast semaphore. Reads data from the address space of the specified process or block. Returns the status of a specified process or block. Lists all the processes that are part of a specified block. Lists all pools that are available to the specified user number. Interrogates the status of the specified pool. Returns the priority of a process. Returns the type of the specified process. Finds the segment that the specified block or process is part of. Reads the current value of a semaphore. Extract detailed information about a signal buffer. Returns the ID of the signal pool associated with a specified block or process. Returns a copy of the signal located in the queue at the specified process. Returns the ID of the stack pool associated with a specified block or process. Returns the number of ticks since system start and the number of microseconds since the last tick. Returns the number of ticks since system start. Returns the user number of the specified process or block. Searches for a process by name and returns the process ID. Hunts for a process with the access rights evaluated for the process specified in the from parameter. Stops a process or trips a previously set breakpoint. Kills a process or a block. Returns a semaphore to the OS memory pool. A call from OSE requiring a block of memory to be copied from one memory segment to another by the MMU. A manifest constant defined by the OSE kernel. A manifest constant defining the signal number of the default signal created by the attach system call. A macro which should be used to define the entry point of a process. Use OSENTRYPOINT when forward-declaring an entrypoint. A manifest constant which should be defined by the user when compiling a process for use in the OSE simulator. A manifest constant defined by the OSE kernel indicating which operating system is currently in use. Shuts down the system and enables the system for a subsequent restart. Receives selected signal(s).

Like receive but it only accepts signals from a specified process. Receives selected signal(s) with a selectable time-out. Makes the caller owner of a signal and clears the redirection information. Re-enables an intercepted process or all intercepted processes in a block. A call from OSE requiring the MMU to select the address space in which the process about to be swapped in will run. Sends a signal to a destination process. Returns the ID of the process which last sent a specified signal. Sends a signal with a stated sender. Sets a breakpoint in a process or block. Creates or updates an environment string for the specified process or block. Stores a 32 bit pointer in a named environment variable. Initializes a fast semaphore with the specified value. Writes data to the address space of a specified process or block. Sets the CPU registers of the specified process. Sets a new priority level for the calling process. Replace the redirection table of a process. The effective segment number for the calling process is set by the MMU. Attempts to change the size of a signal buffer without actually reallocate and copy it. Temporarily assigns superuser privileges to the calling process. Increments a fast semaphore value. Increments the value of the specified semaphore. Returns requested size of a signal buffer. Starts a newly created or previously stopped block or process. Creates and initializes the OSE kernel. Stops a single process or all processes in a block. Returns the system tick length in microseconds. A manifest constant assigned the value 1000L for compatibility with older OSE kernels. Increments the system timer. Waits for a fast semaphore to become non-negative. Waits for the specified semaphore to become non-negative. Informs an interrupt process of how it was invoked. The memory manager interface is of interest only if you write a program loader or a memory protection hardware interface. Receives selected signal(s) with selectable time-out.

Makes the caller the owner of a signal and clears the signals redirection information. Removes all signals sent by any of a set of processes specified, from the signal queue of a process. Assigns a process as a link handler to the system. Lists the environment variables available in the specified block or process. A call from OSE requiring a block of memory to be copied from one memory segment to another, by the MMU. A call from OSE telling the MMU what type of processes reside in the specified segment. A manifest constant defining the signal number of the default signal. A manifest constant that the user can define to enable reporting of file and line information and CPU registers to the debugger. Types, manifest constants and macros are not shown here. Level A is the portable set which means the smallest set of system calls available in an OSE kernel. Using these system calls ensures the highest degree of portability. Level A defines all constants and macros and all types required by system calls on that level. Level B defines the remaining types. Return value Restrictions See also The process ID of the caller is returned in case the signal was sent without redirections. The specified signo (signal number) is entered in the first location in the new buffer. Another signal number may later be assigned to the buffer by simply storing a new number in the first location. The maximum buffer size available is dictated by sizeof(osbufsize). The minimum buffer size is one byte.Return value Returns a pointer to the new buffer. Restrictions See also The new buffer is owned by the calling process. A new owner can be entered only by using one of the system calls that operates on the buffer. It is basically illegal to pass control of a buffer to another process in any other way since buffers may then be lost in case of premature process termination.

If you really need to pass buffers around in a disorderly manner, the restore system call can be used to force registration of a new owner of a buffer. It is an error to allocate a buffer larger than the largest buffer size available in the pool. This link handler receives remote system calls for all hunt calls specifying the indicated linkname as the first part of the hunt path, unless a process with a name matching the hunt path already exists. Hunt calls already pending within the OSE kernel, matching the new link handler name, are honoured by the new link handler.Return value Returns a non-zero value if another link handler with the specified name is already present in the caller's user number space. Restrictions There can be only one link handler for each linkname in each user number space. A link handler with user number zero (superuser) serves all user numbers, and therefore disallows any other Linkhandler with that name. There is no way to deregister a link handler. It must be killed when its services are no longer required. There is a deadlock problem that occurs when a link handler or remote call server issues a system call that results in a remote system call towards the same link handler. This problem is most easily avoided if link handlers are so designed that they never use any system calls from which remote system calls can result. If this is not possible, then such operations should be deferred to other processes related to the link handler. Attach stores a signal buffer owned by the caller in the control block of the specified process or block. This buffer is sent back to the caller by the kernel if the attached process or block is killed. The buffer will be sent back imediately to the caller if the process or block is already dead when issuing the attach. The buffer is freed by the kernel when the calling process issues a detach call for the previously attached process or block, using the reference ID obtained from attach.

This works even if the attached process has been killed and the attached buffer waits in the caller's signal queue. The normal buffer examination calls like sender and addressee work on the returned buffer. Sender is set to the process ID of the killed process. OSE ensures that, when a process dies, attached signals are the last signals sent from the killed process. This means that it is safe for a supervising process to clear signal queues when a previously attached signal is received. The attach system call can also be used by memory manager software to supervise a memory segment. This enables a memory manager to be conveniently notified when a killed memory segment can be reclaimed.Return value Returns a reference ID that may be used in a subsequent call to detach. Restrictions The order in which attached signals are returned when a process dies is unspecified. Also, a user can not assume that attached signals are returned immediately when a process dies. There is a delay caused by the fact that process housekeeping is performed by system daemons as a lower priority job. The attach call is not available to interrupt processes. The kernel tells the MMU software that a new block has been created and that it inherits the specified memory segment from its creator. The MMU may note that there is a new block in the segment. This allows the MMU software to map user created blocks to segments. This allows the function to communicate with system processes normally invisible to the calling process.The MMU tells the kernel that the specified block resides in the indicated memory segment. The kernel will select that segment at each subsequent swap in of any process in the block. The kernel then creates a new segment descriptor and segment ID for each call, but it is assumed that the blocks reside in a shared address space. This mode of operation is useful when it is desired to disable memory protection between the involved blocks.

Killing the segment ID means that all processes in the segment are killed. Segment number zero is the supervisor space. This segment number must not be redefined by the memory manager. Other segment numbers are freely allocated by the memory manager. It clears a breakpoint previously set by the caller at the specified address in the specified process or block. This call is used to clear previously set breakpoints without causing the target block to enter intercept status. It is also used to remove breakpoints that are no longer needed after another breakpoint has been reached. It is important to remember to clear breakpoints that are no longer in use.Return value Returns non-zero if no breakpoint was set at the specified address, or if the breakpoint was already reached, or if the process died before reaching the breakpoint. Restrictions The breakpoint cleared must have been set by the calling process. It is illegal to clear a breakpoint set by another process. The memory segment is inherited from the caller, i.e. all processes in the new block will execute in the same memory space as the creator unless another memory segment is attached to the block by a memory manager prior to the first process being created. This may be desired when a new, separately linked software unit is being loaded into memory for execution. Until the last start call is issued, the block is owned by its creator, i.e. if the creator is killed before this, the child block is killed too. This mechanism ensures that partially created blocks are never left abandoned in the system. A block descriptor is removed from the system when either the block is explicitly killed, or the last process executing in the block is killed. The name parameter is a string containing the name by which the block will be known to the system and to the debugger. The user parameter is the user number under which the created block will execute.

A value of NULL means the creator's user number, which is the value typically used. This parameter is mainly used for phantom processes that should be managed by some link handler. Such processes must reside in kernel address space and can only be created by a superuser process (user 0) executing in supervisor mode.Returns the block ID for the new block. Superuser blocks can only be created by a superuser process. Supervisor mode blocks can only be created by a superuser process (user number 0) executing in supervisor mode itself. Any previously defined handler on that error level is replaced, and the old error handlers entrypoint is returned to the caller. If error handler stack space reserved by a previously defined error handler is larger than required, the stack space size is not altered. The entrypoint is a location within the address space of the specified block. Set entrypoint to NULL to remove a previously created error handler. An error handler behaves as a subroutine called from the process in context. The only difference is that the error handler has its own separate stack. Error handlers may use the same set of system calls as the process running when the error handler was invoked. The error handler is passed parameters containing error information and a flag set to a non-zero value if the call was made from user code and not from the kernel. The handler should return a flag set to a non-zero value if the error was managed. If it returns a flag saying that it could not manage the error, then the error is propagated to the next level. Otherwise the kernel returns to user code. (Errors considered fatal by the kernel are always propagated to the next level) The block error handler is called if there is no process error handler or if the process error handler returns an zero. The block error handler may then be able to resolve the situation in exactly the same manner as on the previous level.

The kernel error handler is part of the kernel and is specified when the kernel is generated. This handler is called if no other error handler is present or if a reported error is fatal or if previous levels can not resolve the situation.Return value Returns the entrypoint of any previously defined error handler, or NULL if no previous error handler was defined. An error handler must return when it is finished. In particular, it must not use the longjmp directive defined in the C language. It is recommended that error handlers are created only for processes or blocks that are closely related to the caller. It is illegal to create an error handler for a block or process in another memory segment. The MMU creates a new pool and attaches it to the specified block and all its children. Pool space skould be allocated by the memory manager and is made known to the kernel by issuing this call. The pool is entirely managed by the kernel until all blocks using the pool are dead. At that point, pool space may be reclaimed by the MMU without further notice to the kernel. The first pool created is the system pool. The system pool is shared by all supervisor processes and those user processes that reside in kernel address space. Other pools are local pools to be used only by the specified block and its children. (It is possible to have local pools in kernel space too, which may be a useful feature when separately linked blocks are utilized in a system with no memory protection hardware.) In systems with simple memory protection hardware (fence registers) it may be useful to have local pools assigned only for stacks. In this way you will get a system with improved security without affecting performance. Bid is the (newly created) block to which the new pool should be attached. Base is the lowest address in the pool. Size is number of bytes reserved for the pool. The first location contains the number of entries in the array, excluding the count itself (max 8).

The first location counts the number of entries (max 8).Otherwise the pool will appear in the original memory segment, which is probably not what the caller intended. On the other hand, keeping signal pools in a common segment disables signal copying while maintaining code protection, which may sometimes be a useful and more efficient mode of operation. It is also wise to set the largest buffer size to a large value, like 65535, which is the largest portable OSE buffersize. Prioritized, background and timer-interrupt processes must be subsequently started with the start system call, or the entire block can be started if only new processes are contained in it. Name is a zero-terminated ASCII string that represents the process name. This string may in some implementations be copied by the kernel and stored in kernel memory. The name is used as a tag by other processes when searching for a process with the hunt call. The name may contain all printable characters. It separates components in the name, which usually represents a network routing path. A link handler may however choose to use the pathname in any way desired. Entrypoint is where the process should begin execution. Stacks are allocated according to a complex set of rules. Supervisor type interrupt and timer-interrupt processes share a common interrupt stack in kernel space. The size of this stack is automatically adjusted to maximum requirements. Prioritized and background processes allocate the user stack from the pool of the block they belong to, the supervisor stack is allocated from the system pool. Priority is the priority of the process. Legal values are is the highest priority. The priority is interpreted in different ways for the various process types. For interrupt processes it means hardware priority.Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Spring 2015 Realtime Communication System for netx. Kernel API Function Reference. www.hilscher.com.

Virtual addresses refer to the virtual store viewed by the process.The presentation layer may represent (encode) the data in various ways (e.g., data Static Structures This is the oldest and simplest memory organization. In current compilers, Historical Approach Affect of Architecture 4 Efficient Utilization EB Gensym G2 Interface Error s Table 7-1. Sub Error s Table 7-1 lists the Several processes are executed concurrently by the At least we want to have Dr. Rajib Mall Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Why, When, Which, How? Why, When, Which, How. Since its creation in the early 1990 s Linux has been installed on millions of computers or embedded systems. These systems may No parts of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, A signal is a short message sent to a process, or group The total mark for each question Release Notes All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. First printing. August 2012. Trademarks Real-Time Innovations, RTI, and Connext are RTOS Debugger. RTOS Debugger for ecos. 1 Overview. 2 Brief Overview of Documents for New Users. 3 Microsoft, MS-DOS and Windows are registered trademarks A Review of ANSI C and Considerations for Embedded C Programming. Basic features of C These characters can be combined to create C words. Alphabet: A, B, C, D. Z, a, b, c, d.z Numeric digits: 0, 1, Transport layer performs two main tasks for the application layer by using the network layer. It provides end to end communication between two applications, and implements Therefore, a course in operating systems is an essential part of any computer science Log and alarm messages Release: VSN04 Status: Standard Version: 03.01 ANSI-C has int, double and char to name just a few. Programmers are rarely content Recently merged with RedHat.